miR-212 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway receptor patched-1
© Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 16 April 2014
Accepted: 20 June 2014
Published: 25 June 2014
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of miR-212 on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its target protein.
Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-212 in PDAC tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines. miR-212 mimic, miR-212 inhibitor and negative control were transfected into pancreatic cancer cells and the effect of miR-212 up-regulation and down-regulation on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cells were investigated. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of Patched-1(PTCH1) were measured. Meanwhile, luciferase assays were performed to validate PTCH1 as miR-212 target in PDAC.
miR-212 was up-regulated in PDAC tissues and cells.Using both gain-of function and loss-of function experiments, a pro-oncogenic function of miR-212 was demonstrated in PDAC. Moreover, up-regulated of PTCH1 could attenuate the effect induced by miR-212.
These data suggest that miR-212 could facilitate PDAC progression and metastasis through targeting PTCH1, implicating a novel mechanism for the progression of PDAC.
microRNAs (miRNAs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved class of small, non-coding RNAs whose function are regulating expression of multiple genes either by translational suppression or gene degradation via interactions with 3′untranslated regions (UTR) of target mRNAs. It has been confirmed that miRNAs modulate many key cellular processes, such as cell growth, cycle, differentiation, and cell death[2, 3]. Moreover, Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been identified in various types of cancer, and compelling evidence suggest that miRNAs function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors genes[4, 5]. Recently, miRNAs have been discovered to have a role in progression and metastasis of human cancers[6–11]. Furthermore, several clinical studies have observed correlations between miRNA expression and recurrence and survival. The miR-212, which locates at chromosome 17p13.3, was shown to be over-expressed in many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer, and oral carcinoma, whereas in other tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer[16, 17], colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, miR-212 was down-expressed. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the roles miR-212 played in PDAC and the potential mechanism. Using gain and loss of function assays, a pro-oncogenic function of miR-212 in PDAC was observed. Furthermore, the Hh signal pathway receptor PTCH1 was demonstrated to be a direct target of miR-212 in PDAC. Our findings provide an oncogenic role of miR-212 orchestrates in PDAC and its possible mechanism.
Materials and methods
Ethical approval of the study protocol
For the analyzed tissue specimens, all patients were given informed consent to use excess pathological specimens for research purposes. The protocols employed in this study and the use of human tissues was approved by the Ethics Committee of The Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated of Shanghai Jiaotong University and conducted in full accordance with ethical principles, including the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, and the local legislation. The manuscript was accompanied by a statement that the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject and according to the above mentioned principles.
Human tissue specimens and cell lines
Twenty-two PDAC specimens were obtained from The Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University. The matched normal gastric tissue samples were obtained from tissues that were located 5 cm away from the tumor margin. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of The Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated of Shanghai Jiaotong University.
The human pancreatic cancer cells, including PANC-1, SW1990, BxPC-3 were obtained from the Americacn Type culture Collection (ATCC, manassas, VA) and the normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells were isolated from normal pancreatic tissues as previously described. Cells were maintained in DMEM with 10% FBS (GIBCO, Carlsbad, CA), and were cultured at 37°C with 5% CO2.
Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR)
Total RNA was extracted from tissues and cells using Trizol regent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), and the reverse transcription reactions were performed by random primers and a Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase kit (Invitrogen) following the manufacturer’s protocol. Real-time PCR was performed using a standard SYBR Green PCR kit (Toyobo, Osaka, Japan) protocol on Applied Biosystems 7500 Real Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) according to the instructions. U6 was used as references for miR-212, GAPDH was used as references for PTCH1. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The 2-ΔΔCt method was used to quantify the relative levels of gene expression. The primer sequences were as follows: RT Primer: CTCAACTGGTGTCGTGGAGTCGGCAATTCAGTTGAGGGCCGTGA, has-miR-212 forward: ACACTCCAGCTGGGTAACAGTCTCCAGTC; U6 SLRT: CTCAACTGGTGTCGTGGAGTCGGCAATTCAGTTGAGAAAATATG, U6 forward: ACACTCCAGCTGGGCGCAAATTCGTGAAGC. PTCH1 forward: GCTTCCCGTGCTTTTGTCTT, reverse: CTGCAGCTCAATGACTT.
miR-212 mimic, miR-212 inhibitor, negative control were obtained from GenePharma (Shanghai, China) and the sequences were as follows: miR-212 mimic: sense (5′ to 3′) UAACAGUCUCCAGUCACGGCC, antisense (5′ to 3′) CCGUGACUGGAGACUGUUAUU. miR-212 Inhibitor: sense (5′ to 3′) GGCCGUGACUGGAGACUGUUA. Negative control: sense (5′ to 3′)UUCUCCGAACGUGUCACGUTT, antisense (5′ to 3′)ACGUGACACGUUCGGAGAATT. Cells were seeded in 6-well plates at a concentration of 1 × 105 and cultured in medium without antibiotics for approximately 24 h before transfection. Cells were transiently transfected with miR-212 mimic, miR-212 inhibitor or negative control(NC), at a final concentration of 200nM. After 6 h incubation at 37°C and 5% CO2, the medium was re-placed with fresh culture medium.
Cell proliferation assay
Cell proliferation analysis was performed with Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kumamoto, Japan) according to the manual of the manufacturer. Briefly, PDAC cells were plated in 96-well plates in triplicate at 1 × 104 cells each well and cultured in the growth medium. Cells were examined at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. CCK-8 (10 μl) was added to each well at different time points. After an incubation of 1 h at 37°C, absorbance was measured at 450 nm. Five independent experiments were performed.
Colony formation assay
2000 of each transfected cells were plated in six-well plate and cultured for 14 days. Then cells were fixed and stained with methanol for 30 min, followed by 0.5% crystal violet for 20 min. Visible colonies were quantified in four different fields and the mean value was calculated.
Cell migration and invasion assays
The wound healing assay was used to examine cell migration. The migration status was determined by measuring the movement of cells into a scraped area created by a 200 μl pipette tip. After wound scratching, cells were cultured in media supplemented with 0.1% FBS to eliminate the effect of cell proliferation. The process of wound closure was photographed at 24 h. Cell invasion was examined using a extracellular matrix membrane (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). Cells were suspended in serum-free medium and placed in the top chambers, and complete medium containing 10% FBS was added to the bottom chambers. The chambers were then incubated for 12 h at 37°C with 5% CO2. After incubation, the noninvasive cells were gently removed from the top wells with a cotton-tipped swab and the chambers were fixed with methanol for 30 min. The chambers were then stained with crystal violet for another 30 min. Four random fields were counted per chamber using an inverted microscope (Olympus, Japan), and each experiment was repeated three times.
Luciferase activity assay
PANC-1 cells were co-transfected with miR-212 mimic or negative control (NC) and wild type (WT) or the mutated 3′UTR (Mut) of PTCH1. 48 h later, cells were collected and luciferase activity was assayed using dual-luciferase assay system (Promega, Wiscosin, WI).
Western blot analysis
Cells were washed with PBS and lysed for 10 min on ice in RIPA buffer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). Protein concentration was measured using the BCA assay (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). The protein fractions were resuspended in loading buffer and denatured at 100°C for 10 min. Total proteins (20 μg/lane) were separated on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels and transferred to PVDF membranes. The membranes were then blocked in 5% fat-free milk in TBST buffer (0.1% Tween-20) for 2 h at room temperature. The rabbit anti-human polyclonal antibody was used in conjunction with 0.4 μg/ml of anti-species conjugated horseradish peroxidase (Upstate, Lake Placid, NY), and bands were detected by chemiluminescence (Amersham Pharmacia Inc, Piscataway, NJ).
PTCH1 was detected in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed according to the manufacturer instructions. each slide was deparaffinized in 60°C, followed by treatment with xylene and graded alcohol. After the antigen retrieval and being blocked with 5% bovine serum albumin, tissue slides were immunohistochemically stained by antibody against PTCH1 (Santa Cruz Biotech, Santa Cruz, CA), then visualized by standard avidin–biotinylated peroxidase complex method. Hematoxylin was used for counterstaining and morphologic images were observed with Olympus BX51 microscope.
All data are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM), Values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical analyses were analyzed using Student’s t-test. All analyses were performed with SPSS 19.0.
Upregulated miR-212 expression in PDAC tissues and cell lines
miR-212 increased PDAC cell growth and motility in vitro
PTCH1 was a target of miR-212 in PDAC cells
PTCH1 was negatively correlated with miR-212 in PDAC tissues
Overexpression of PTCH1 attenuated miR-212 induced PDAC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion
Accumulating evidences have revealed that miRNAs participate in the progression of many types of cancer by targeting multiple genes which involved in the progression and metastasis. Thereby, identification of specific miRNAs may provide clues for the diagnosis and therapy of patients with cancer. Here, we found that the expression of miR-212 was significantly up-regulated in PDAC tissues and cells lines, consistent with the study of Park. Next, in vitro experiments were performed to test the pro-oncogenic roles of miR-212 played in PDAC. As we expected, a pro-proliferative, pro-migratory, pro-invasive effect of miR-212 was observed in PDAC cells, while miR-212 inhibitor suppressed this effect. Furthermore, we showed that PTCH1 was a direct target of miR-212 in PDAC cells, consistent with Li study, PTCH1 was a direct target of miR-212 in non-small lung cancer.
PTCH1 is a member of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. The Hh signaling pathway is crucial in the growth and patterning during embryonic development, while abnormal activation of Hh signaling pathway is highly involved in tumor progression and metastasis[24, 25]. As a tumor suppressor gene, PTCH1 inhibits tumor cell growth and motility by blocking the Hh signaling pathway. PTCH1 is down-regulated in some malignant cancers, such as liver, breast, and esophageal cancer[27–29]. The ectopic expression of PTCH1 may leads to the loss of its normal inhibitory function on Smo, another member of Hh signaling pathway, resulting in the abnormal activation of the Hh signaling pathway, as well as the downstream transcription factor Gli1. The abnormal activation of Hh signaling pathway can lead to the promotion of tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion[30–32]. In this study, we showed that the expression level of miR-212 was inversely correlated with PTCH1 in PDAC tissues, and up-regulated PTCH1 could attenuate the pro-oncogenic effect induced by miR-212 in PDAC cells. These results indicated that the overexpression of miR-212 mediated PDAC cell growth, migration, and invasion may partially through inhibiting PTCH1 expression.
Taken together, this study showed that miR-212 was up-regulated in PDAC samples and cell lines, and both gain-of and loss of-function demonstrated that miR-212 enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of PDAC cells. PTCH1 was identified as a target of miR-212, and up-regulated PTCH1 partially attenuated the pro-oncogenic effect or miR-212, indicating that miR-212 may act as an oncogene and miR-212/PTCH1 present a potential target for PDAC therapy.
This work was supported by Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (13JC1407402).
- Guled M, Knuutila S: MicroRNAs and cancer. Duodecim. 2013, 129 (16): 1661-1669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bartel DP: MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell. 2004, 116 (2): 281-297.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bartel DP: MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions. Cell. 2009, 136 (2): 215-233.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shenouda SK, Alahari SK: MicroRNA function in cancer: oncogene or a tumor suppressor?. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2009, 28 (3–4): 369-378.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Calin GA, Croce CM: MicroRNA signatures in human cancers. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006, 6 (11): 857-866.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma L, Weinberg RA: Micromanagers of malignancy: role of microRNAs in regulating metastasis. Trends Genet. 2008, 24 (9): 448-456.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bouyssou JM, Manier S, Huynh D, Issa S, Roccaro AM, Ghobrial IM: Regulation of microRNAs in cancer metastasis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014, 1845 (2): 255-265.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bracken CP, Gregory PA, Khew-Goodall Y, Goodall GJ: The role of microRNAs in metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009, 66 (10): 1682-1699.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma MZ, Kong X, Weng MZ, Cheng K, Gong W, Quan ZW, Peng CH: Candidate microRNA biomarkers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: meta-analysis, experimental validation and clinical significance. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013, 32 (1): 71-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guan P, Yin Z, Li X, Wu W, Zhou B: Meta-analysis of human lung cancer microRNA expression profiling studies comparing cancer tissues with normal tissues. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012, 31: 54-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang C, Zheng X, Shen C, Shi Y: MicroRNA-203 suppresses cell proliferation and migration by targeting BIRC5 and LASP1 in human triple-negative breast cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012, 31: 58-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicoloso MS, Spizzo R, Shimizu M, Rossi S, Calin GA: MicroRNAs–the micro steering wheel of tumour metastases. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009, 9 (4): 293-302.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Zhang D, Chen C, Ruan Z, Li Y, Huang Y: MicroRNA-212 displays tumor-promoting properties in non-small cell lung cancer cells and targets the hedgehog pathway receptor PTCH1. Mol Biol Cell. 2012, 23 (8): 1423-1434.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scapoli L, Palmieri A, Lo ML, Pezzetti F, Rubini C, Girardi A, Farinella F, Mazzotta M, Carinci F: MicroRNA expression profiling of oral carcinoma identifies new markers of tumor progression. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010, 23 (4): 1229-1234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang X, Zeng J, Wang L, Fang M, Wang Q, Zhao M, Xu X, Liu Z, Li W, Liu S, Yu H, Jia J, Chen C: Histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and negatively regulated by hsa-miR-212. PLoS ONE. 2013, 8 (7): e69784-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiping Z, Ming F, Lixiang W, Xiuming L, Yuqun S, Han Y, Zhifang L, Yundong S, Shili L, Chunyan C, Jihui J: MicroRNA-212 inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer by directly repressing retinoblastoma binding protein 2. J Cell Biochem. 2013, 114 (12): 2666-2672.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu L, Wang F, Xu XF, Mo WH, Xia YJ, Wan R, Wang XP, Guo CY: Down-regulation of miR-212 expression by DNA hypermethylation in human gastric cancer cells. Med Oncol. 2011, 28 (Suppl 1): S189-S196.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meng X, Wu J, Pan C, Wang H, Ying X, Zhou Y, Yu H, Zuo Y, Pan Z, Liu RY, Huang W: Genetic and epigenetic down-regulation of microRNA-212 promotes colorectal tumor metastasis via dysregulation of MnSOD. Gastroenterology. 2013, 145 (2): 426-436.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walter BA, Valera VA, Pinto PA, Merino MJ: Comprehensive microRNA profiling of prostate cancer. J Cancer. 2013, 4 (5): 350-357.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchi H, Kojima T, Ito T, Kimura Y, Imamura M, Son S, Koizumi J, Murata M, Nagayama M, Nobuoka T, Tanaka S, Hirata K, Sawada N: Transcriptional control of tight junction proteins via a protein kinase C signal pathway in human telomerase reverse transcriptase-transfected human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2010, 177 (2): 698-712.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Osada H, Takahashi T: MicroRNAs in biological processes and carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2007, 28 (1): 2-12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park JK, Henry JC, Jiang J, Esau C, Gusev Y, Lerner MR, Postier RG, Brackett DJ, Schmittgen TD: miR-132 and miR-212 are increased in pancreatic cancer and target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011, 406 (4): 518-523.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stone DM, Hynes M, Armanini M, Swanson TA, Gu Q, Johnson RL, Scott MP, Pennica D, Goddard A, Phillips H, Noll M, Hooper JE, de Sauvage F, Rosenthal A: The tumour-suppressor gene patched encodes a candidate receptor for Sonic hedgehog. Nature. 1996, 384 (6605): 129-134.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thayer SP, di Magliano MP, Heiser PW, Nielsen CM, Roberts DJ, Lauwers GY, Qi YP, Gysin S, Fernandez-del CC, Yajnik V, Antoniu B, McMahon M, Warshaw AL, Hebrok M: Hedgehog is an early and late mediator of pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis. Nature. 2003, 425 (6960): 851-856.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang J, Hui CC: Hedgehog signaling in development and cancer. Dev Cell. 2008, 15 (6): 801-812.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gao J, Li Z, Chen Z, Shao J, Zhang L, Xu G, Tu Z, Gong Y: Antisense Smo under the control of the PTCH1 promoter delivered by an adenoviral vector inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer. Gene Ther. 2006, 13 (22): 1587-1594.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fu X, Wang Q, Chen X, Huang X, Cao L, Tan H, Li W, Zhang L, Bi J, Su Q, Chen L: Expression patterns and polymorphisms of PTCH in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Exp Mol Pathol. 2008, 84 (3): 195-199.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishiyama A, Hibi K, Koike M, Fujiwara M, Kodera Y, Ito K, Nakao A: PTCH gene expression as a potential marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2006, 26 (1A): 195-198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolf I, Bose S, Desmond JC, Lin BT, Williamson EA, Karlan BY, Koeffler HP: Unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes reveals DNA promoter methylation and reduced expression of PTCH in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007, 105 (2): 139-155.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- You S, Zhou J, Chen S, Zhou P, Lv J, Han X, Sun Y: PTCH1, a receptor of Hedgehog signaling pathway, is correlated with metastatic potential of colorectal cancer. Ups J Med Sci. 2010, 115 (3): 169-175.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheng T, Li C, Zhang X, Chi S, He N, Chen K, McCormick F, Gatalica Z, Xie J: Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer. Mol Cancer. 2004, 3: 29-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chi S, Huang S, Li C, Zhang X, He N, Bhutani MS, Jones D, Castro CY, Logrono R, Haque A, Zwischenberger J, Tyring SK, Zhang H, Xie J: Activation of the hedgehog pathway in a subset of lung cancers. Cancer Lett. 2006, 244 (1): 53-60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.