Overexpression of P21-activated kinase 4 is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes migration and invasion
- Songwang Cai†1,
- Zhiqiang Ye†2,
- Xiaohong Wang3,
- Yuhang Pan4,
- Yimin Weng1,
- Sen Lao1,
- Hongbo Wei5Email author and
- Lian Li6Email author
© Cai et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 6 February 2015
Accepted: 6 May 2015
Published: 15 May 2015
P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), an effector of the Rho family protein Cdc42, is an important oncogene whose expression is increased in many human cancers and is generally positively correlated with advanced disease and decreased survival. However, little is known about the expression and biological function of PAK4 in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
PAK4 expression in NSCLC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blotting. Prognostic value of PAK4 expression was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. siRNA-mediated gene silencing and protein kinase assay was applied to demonstrate the role and the mechanism of PAK4 in lung cancer cell migration, invasion.
The results showed that PAK4 was overexpressed in NSCLC cell lines and human NSCLC tissues. PAK4 expression was detected both in the membranes and cytoplasm of NSCLC cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, increased expression of PAK4 was associated with metastasis, shorter overall survival, advanced stage of NSCLC. Furthermore, PAK4 expression was positively correlated with phosphorylation of LIMK1 expression levels. Knockdown of PAK4 in NSCLC cell lines led to reduce the phosphorylation of LIMK1, which resulted in decrease of the cell migration and invasion. In addition, PAK4 bound to LIMK1 directly and activated it via phosphorylation.
These data demonstrate that PAK4 mediated LIMK1 phosphorylation regulates the migration and invasion in NSCLC. Therefore, PAK4 might be a significant prognostic marker and potential therapeutic molecular target in NSCLC.
KeywordsPAK4 LIM kinase 1 Non-small cell lung cancer Migration Invasion
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death around the world, and approximately 80–85 % of lung cancers are non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1, 2], which accounts for up to 85 % of such deaths [3, 4]. The leading cause of death from NSCLC is metastasis, which occurs even before the diagnosis of lung cancer is made, leading to recurrence and treatment failure in patients [5–7]. Despite advances in therapeutic approaches, most patients are diagnosed at the advanced stages, and the 5 year survival rate remains less than 15 % . Therefore, it is important to identify new predictive prognostic biomarkers and to better understand the mechanisms of disease progression.
P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine (Thr) protein kinases positioned at the nexus of several oncogenic signaling pathways. Overexpression or mutational activation of PAK isoforms frequently occurs in various human tumors; given their involvement in cancer cell motility, survival, apoptosis, and metastasis, PAK isoforms are important regulators of cancer cell signaling networks . Based on their amino acid sequences and their functions, 6 mammalian PAKs have been identified and classified into group I (PAK1, 2, 3) and group II (PAK4, 5, 6) PAKs [10, 11]. PAK4 was initially identified as an effector Cdc42, which is essential for regulating cytoskeleton reorganization and filopodia formation . PAK4 is upregulated in many cancers and is an important oncogene that promotes proliferation [13–16] and migration [15–23], and suppresses apoptosis . However, the role of PAK4 in NSCLC remains unclear.
In this study, we discovered that PAK4 is overexpressed in NSCLC and that its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. Knockdown of PAK4 inhibited the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, we found that PAK4 bound to LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) directly and activated it via phosphorylation, which is required for tumor cell motility and invasion. These results suggest that PAK4 may play an important role in NSCLC cell migration and invasion, and is a potentially useful prognostic marker and therapeutic target.
Materials and methods
Tissue specimens and cell lines
NSCLC tissue samples and adjacent normal tissue samples were acquired following the obtainment of informed consent from the patients under institutional review board-approved protocols. NSCLC primary tissue samples of ten patients without metastasis and ten patients with metastasis and adjacent matched non-tumor tissues were collected between October 2012 and January 2013 at the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China). The fresh tissue samples were immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. 210 NSCLC tissues were collected between January 2005 and January 2009. No patient had received treatment prior to enrolment in this study. All diagnoses were histopathologically confirmed. This study was approved by the institutional research ethics committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University.
The following cell lines were used in this study: human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) and NSCLC cells (A549, NCI-520, NCI-460, NCI-H596). All cell lines were obtained from Cell Bank, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). The NSCLC cell lines were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Gibco, Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) supplemented with 10 % newborn calf serum (Gibco, Invitrogen Life Technologies). HBE cells were maintained in keratinocyte serum-free medium with 25 μg/ml bovine pituitary extract and 0.2 ng/ml recombinant epidermal growth factor (Invitrogen Life Technologies). Cells were transfected with DNA constructs using siPORT™ NeoFX™ Transfection Agent (Ambion) for 5 min.
Immunohistochemical staining was performed using a standard streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (EnVision™ Detection System; Dako, Copenhagen, Denmark). Tissue blocks were cut into 5-mm sections, deparaffinized with xylene, and rehydrated in a graded ethanol series. The sections were stained with anti-PAK4 (1:50; Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA, USA) overnight at 4 °C.
The degree of immunostaining was reviewed and scored semiquantitatively by two independent observers. The staining index was calculated as the product of the proportion of positively stained tumor cells and the staining intensity. The former was scored as follows: 0 (0 % positive tumor cells), 1 (<10 %), 2 (10–35 %), 3 (35–70 %), and 4 (>70 %). Staining intensity was graded as follows: 0 (no staining), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate), and 3 (strong). The staining index was scored at 0–12. The cutoff values for high and low PAK4 expression were ascertained by measuring heterogeneity using log-rank testing with respect to overall survival. A staining index score of ≥6 indicated high PAK4 expression; a staining index score of <6 indicated low PAK4 expression.
RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR
TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen Life Technologies) was used to extract total RNA. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized using a PrimeScript RT Reagent Kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Real-time PCR was performed using Taqman universal PCR kit by an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The following primers were used: PAK4 forward 5′-ATGTGGTGGAGATGTACAACAGCTA-3′ and reverse 5′-GTTCATCCTGGTGTGGGTGAC-3′; U6 forward 5′-TGCGGGTGCTCGCTTCGGCAGC-3′ and reverse 5′-CCAGTGCAGGGTCCGAGGT-3′.
Western blotting and immunoprecipitation
Western blotting was performed as described previously . Proteins were separated using 10 % SDS-PAGE and then transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The membranes were incubated with rabbit anti-PAK4 (1:1000; Cell Signaling Technology), anti-LIMK1 (1:1000; Cell Signaling Technology), anti–p-LIMK1 (1:1000; Cell Signaling Technology), anti-cofilin (1:1000; Cell Signaling Technology), and anti–p-cofilin antibodies (1:1000; Cell Signaling Technology). The proteins were visualized using ECL reagents (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). Protein loading was estimated using rabbit anti-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology). The intensity of protein fragments was quantified using GeneTools software (version 3.03; Syngene, Cambridge, UK). Three independent experiments were performed for all western blotting studies.
Immunoprecipitation assays were performed as described previously . A549 or NCI-H520 cells (6 × 106) were solubilized in 400 μl cell lysis buffer (1 % Triton X-100, 150 mM NaCl, 20 mM Tris-Cl [pH 7.4], 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM Na3VO4, 2.5 mM pyrophosphate, 1 mM glycerol phosphate, and a protease inhibitor mixture) for 10 min at 4 °C. The cell extract was immunoprecipitated with 4 μg PAK4 (Cell Signaling Technology) or LIMK1 (Cell Signaling Technology) antibody and then incubated with 60 μl Protein G Plus/Protein A-Agarose (Santa Cruz Biotech). The precipitated immunocomplexes were then boiled in Laemmli buffer and subjected to western blotting with anti-LIMK1 or anti-PAK4 antibody.
Cells were cultured on cover glasses, fixed using paraformaldehyde, and permeabilized with 0.1 % Triton X-100 in TBS. The cover glasses were incubated with the primary antibodies (anti-PAK4, Cell Signaling Technology; anti-LIMK1, Cell Signaling Technology) at 1:50 dilutions. PAK4 was detected with an anti-goat secondary antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488 (Invitrogen Life Technologies). LIMK1 was detected with an anti-rabbit secondary antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 (Invitrogen Life Technologies). The fluorescent staining was visualized using a 63× NA 1.3 oil objective on a confocal microscope (LSM 510 Meta; Carl Zeiss, Inc.). The co-localization was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (full co-localization = 1.0) by the Image Pro Plus software.
Protein kinase assay
PAK4 (WT) cDNA was cloned into a pET30a Escherichia coli expression vector. The mutant vectors PAK4 (S445N) and PAK4 (K350M) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinant activated PAK4 (S445N), kinase-defective PAK4 (K350M), and PAK4 (WT) proteins were purified from the E. coli expression systems. LIMK1 protein was purchased from Invitrogen Life Technologies. Equal amounts of the proteins were incubated in buffer containing 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM MgCl2, 50 mM HEPES (pH 7.5), 1 mM DTT, and 50 μM ATP for 30 min at 30 °C. The protein kinase assay reaction was terminated by the addition of 3× SDS sample buffer. Western blotting was used to detect LIMK1 phosphorylation at Thr508.
Matrigel invasion assays and transwell migration assays
For Matrigel invasion assays, 5 × 104 cells were added to a matrigel invasion chamber (BD Biosciences, CA, USA). FBS was added to the lower chamber as a chemoattractant. After 24 h, the non-invading cells were removed and invasive cells located on the lower side of the chamber were stained with crystal violet. Transwell migration assays were performed in a similar manner as the matrigel invasion assays but without matrigel on the filter.
Data from three independent experiments are presented as the mean ± SE. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 17.0; IBM, New York, NY, USA). Differences between variables were assessed using the χ 2 test. For survival analysis, all patients with NSCLC were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The differences in overall survival were analyzed using the log-rank test. Using the Cox regression model, multivariate survival analysis was performed on all parameters that were significant in the univariate analysis. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant.
Pattern of PAK4 expression in human NSCLC cell lines or tissues
Association between PAK4 expression and NSCLC progression or prognosis
Correlation of PAK4 expression with clinicopathological variables in 210 cases of NSCLC
(n = 210)
(n = 73)
(n = 137)
Moderate + high
T1 + T2
T3 + T4
N0 + N1
N2 + N3
I + II
III + IV
Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with overall survival of patients with NSCLC
HR (95 % CI)
PAK4 (High vs. Low)
Age (>60 vs. ≤60)
Gender (Male vs. Female)
Histological type (SqCC vs A vs. Other)
Distant metastasis (M1 vs. M0)
T factor (T3 + T4 vs. T1 + T2)
Lymph node (N2 + N3 vs. N0 + N1)
Clinical stage (III + IV vs. I + II)
Differentiation (Moderate + high vs. Low)
PAK4 (How vs. Ligh)
Differentiation (Moderate + high vs. Low)
Distant metastasis (M1 vs. M0)
Lymph node (N2 + N3 vs. N0 + N1)
Clinical stage (III + IV vs. I + II)
Influence of PAK4 knockdown on NSCLC cell migration and invasion
The role of LIMK1 for PAK4-mediated NSCLC cell migration and invasion
To explore the possibility that PAK4 phosphorylated LIMK1 in vivo, we examined whether PAK4 physically interacted with LIMK1 in the A549 and NCI-H520 cells using by immunofluorescent staining. The results showed that PAK4 (green) and LIMK1 (red) were predominantly localized within the cytoplasm (Fig. 5b). The degree of co-localization was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient; the mean ± SE of PAK4 and LIMK1 colocalization was 0.72 ± 0.02 (n = 30) in the A549 cells and 0.79 ± 0.03 (n = 30) in the NCI-H520 cells. These results showed that PAK4 and LIMK1 generally co-localized in the PC-3 and DU145 cells.
To investigate the role of PAK4 in the process of LIMK1 and cofilin phosphorylation, co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed. Cell lysates were incubated with PAK4 antibody, the immunocomplex was purified, separated by SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotted with a LIMK1 antibody. The LIMK1 protein was present in the complex immunoprecipitated with the anti-PAK4 antibody (Fig. 5c, top); PAK4 was also present in the reciprocal immunoprecipitation with the anti-LIMK1 antibody (Fig. 5c, bottom). In addition, neither PAK4 nor LIMK1 were detected in the immunocomplex in association with the control immunoglobulin G, indicating the specificity of the observed co-association. These results show that PAK4 interacts specifically with LIMK1 in NSCLC cells.
PAK4 is an important oncogene in many cancers, and many of its functions are dependent on PAK4 kinase activity. To determine whether PAK4 directly phosphorylated LIMK1, we performed an in vitro kinase assay using purified wild-type PAK4 (WT) and LIMK1 protein, and found that LIMK1 was phosphorylated by PAK4 (Fig. 5d). We also used purified PAK4 with different activities, activated PAK4 (S445N), kinase-defective PAK4 (K350M), and LIMK1 protein in the in vitro kinase assay. LIMK1 phosphorylation in the presence of PAK4 (K350M) was significantly lower than that in the presence of PAK4 (WT) or PAK4 (S445N) (Fig. 5d). These data indicate that PAK4 could phosphorylate LIMK1 protein.
To further reveal the relation between PAK4 and phosphorylation of LIMK1 in clinical NSCLC tissues, we examined the expression of PAK4 and p-LIMK1 in 20 human NSCLC tissues using western blotting. The extent of PAK4 upregulation was positively correlated with the amount of p-LIMK1 (R2 = 0.657, p < 0.05) (Fig. 5e), suggesting that the effect of PAK4 kinase activity on LIMK1 is clinically relevant in human NSCLC tissues.
Although PAK4 is an important oncogene in many cancers, the role of PAK4 in NSCLC remains obscure. In this study, we detected PAK4 overexpression in NSCLC cell lines and human NSCLC tissues, and found that PAK4 overexpression was correlated significantly with clinical stage, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. More importantly, upregulated expression of PAK4 in NSCLC patients was associated with shorter overall survival. These results show that PAK4 is an important prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Upregulated PAK4 promotes cell migration in several cancers [13–23]. However, the role of PAK4 in NSCLC cell migration remains unclear. As far as we know, this is the first study to reveal that PAK4 increase NSCLC cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, PAK4 regulation of cell migration is dependent on the downstream pathway of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in choriocarcinoma [15, 16], c-Src/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and MMP-2 in ovarian cancer , LIMK1/cofilin in prostate cancer , MMP-2 in glioma , and superior cervical ganglia 10 (SCG10) or LIMK1/cofilin in gastric cancer [20, 21]. We revealed that PAK4 promoted migration by directly binding to LIMK1 and activating it via phosphorylation. It has been reported that the PAK4-LIMK1-cofilin signaling pathway promotes cell migration in prostate cancer and gastric cancer [17, 20]. Other signal pathways through which PAK4 mediates NSCLC migration require further exploration.
LIMK1, a downstream effector of PAK4, is an important regulator of cytoskeletal organization involved in cell migration [27, 28]. LIMK1 is overexpressed in lung cancer and is associated with high tumor-nodes-metastasis (TNM) stage and lymph node metastasis . Our experiments also showed that LIMK1 was overexpressed in NSCLC tissues, especially in tissues with metastasis (data not shown). Furthermore, si-LIMK1 suppressed the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells . However, how modulating LIMK1 promotes lung cancer cell migration remains unclear. In this study, we found that LIMK1 interacted directly with PAK4 and acted as a substrate to promote cell migration and invasion in NSCLC. Furthermore, overexpression of LIMK1 rescued the effects of PAK4 knockdown on NSCLC cell migration and invasion. These findings show that PAK4 increased NSCLC cell migration by phosphorylating LIMK1.
CDK5 kinase regulatory subunit-associated protein 3 (CDK5RAP3) in hepatocellular cancer  and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in ovarian cancer  activate PAK4 to promote cell migration. HGF and c-Met are overexpressed in NSCLC . However, the upstream pathways of PAK4 in NSCLC cell migration remain unclear. We intend to explore the mechanism of PAK4 activation in NSCLC in future studies.
In the present study, increased PAK4 expression was associated with differentiation, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, clinical stage, and an unfavorable prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Our findings suggest that thePAK4-LIMK1 pathway may be related to the progression of NSCLC and that PAK4 may be significant prognostic marker for this disease.
This study was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (81,471,549), and Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (2012B031800063).
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2893–917.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qu Y, Wu X, Yin Y, Yang Y, Ma D, Li H. Antitumor activity of selective MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 in combination with PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC xenograft models. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014;33:52–61.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsuboi M, Ohira T, Saji H, Miyajima K, Kajiwara N, Uchida O, et al. The present status of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;13:73–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Shen Q, Shi Q, Yu B, Wang X, Cheng K, et al. Detection of ALK protein expression in lung squamous cell carcinomas by immunohistochemistry. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014;33:109–15.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin G, Sun L, Wang R, Guo Y, Xie C. Overexpression of muscarinic receptor 3 promotes metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2014;9:170–8.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Guan X, Zhang H, Xie X, Wang H, Long J, et al. DAL-1 attenuates epithelial-to mesenchymal transition in lung cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015;34:3–13.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Liu H, Wu W, Li Y, Li J. Osteopontin genetic variants are associated with overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients and bone metastasis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013;32:45.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59:225–49.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Radu M, Semenova G, Kosoff R, Chernoff J. PAK signalling during the development and progression of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:13–25.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar R, Gururaj AE, Barnes CJ. p21-activated kinases in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6:459–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fryer BH, Field J. Rho, Rac, Pak and angiogenesis: old roles and newly identified responsibilities in endothelial cells. Cancer Lett. 2005;229:13–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abo A, Qu J, Cammarano MS, Dan C, Fritsch A, Baud V, et al. PAK4, a novel effector for Cdc42Hs, is implicated in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and in the formation of filopodia. EMBO J. 1998;17:6527–40.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Callow MG, Clairvoyant F, Zhu S, Schryver B, Whyte DB, Bischoff JR, et al. Requirement for PAK4 in the anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:550–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tabusa H, Brooks T, Massey AJ. Knockdown of PAK4 or PAK1 inhibits the proliferation of mutant KRAS colon cancer cells independently of RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:109–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang HJ, Siu MK, Yeung MC, Jiang LL, Mak VC, Ngan HY, et al. Overexpressed PAK4 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of choriocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:765–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siu MK, Chan HY, Kong DS, Wong ES, Wong OG, Ngan HY, et al. p21-activated kinase 4 regulates ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and contributes to poor prognosis in patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18622–7.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahmed T, Shea K, Masters JR, Jones GE, Wells CM. A PAK4-LIMK1 pathway drives prostate cancer cell migration downstream of HGF. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1320–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li Z, Zhang H, Lundin L, Thullberg M, Liu Y, Wang Y, et al. p21-activated kinase 4 phosphorylation of integrin beta5 Ser-759 and Ser-762 regulates cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23699–710.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kesanakurti D, Chetty C, Rajasekhar Maddirela D, Gujrati M, Rao JS. Functional cooperativity by direct interaction between PAK4 and MMP-2 in the regulation of anoikis resistance, migration and invasion in glioma. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3, e445.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Ke Q, Li Y, Liu F, Zhu G, Li F. DGCR6L, a novel PAK4 interaction protein, regulates PAK4-mediated migration of human gastric cancer cell via LIMK1. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:70–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guo Q, Su N, Zhang J, Li X, Miao Z, Wang G, et al. PAK4 kinase-mediated SCG10 phosphorylation involved in gastric cancer metastasis. Oncogene. 2014;33:3277–87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mak GW, Chan MM, Leong VY, Lee JM, Yau TO, Ng IO, et al. Overexpression of a novel activator of PAK4, the CDK5 kinase-associated protein CDK5RAP3, promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Cancer Res. 2011;71:2949–58.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu W, Xia YH, Qu JJ, He YY, Li BL, Lu C, et al. p21-activated kinase 4 regulation of endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion involves the ERK1/2 pathway mediated MMP-2 secretion. Neoplasma. 2013;60:493–503.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Minden A. PAK4 functions in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha-induced survival pathways by facilitating TRADD binding to the TNF receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41192–200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhu B, Li X, Zhang Y, Ye C, Wang Y, Cai S, et al. Cross-talk of alpha tocopherol-associated protein and JNK controls the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:2270–82.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kidera Y, Tsubaki M, Yamazoe Y, Shoji K, Nakamura H, Ogaki M, et al. Reduction of lung metastasis, cell invasion, and adhesion in mouse melanoma by statin-induced blockade of the Rho/Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase pathway. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:127–37.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McConnell BV, Koto K, Gutierrez-Hartmann A. Nuclear and cytoplasmic LIMK1 enhances human breast cancer progression. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:75.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dan C, Kelly A, Bernard O, Minden A. Cytoskeletal changes regulated by the PAK4 serine/threonine kinase are mediated by LIM kinase 1 and cofilin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32115–21.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Q, Jiao D, Hu H, Song J, Yan J, Wu L, et al. Downregulation of LIMK1 level inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs. Oncol Res. 2013;20:491–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gumustekin M, Kargi A, Bulut G, Gozukizil A, Ulukus C, Oztop I, et al. HGF/c-Met overexpressions, but not met mutation, correlates with progression of non-small cell lung cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:209–18.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.