- Open Access
microRNA response elements-regulated TRAIL expression shows specific survival-suppressing activity on bladder cancer
- Youguang Zhao†1Email author,
- Ying Li†2,
- Liang Wang1,
- Hang Yang1,
- Qingtang Wang1,
- Haiyan Qi3,
- Shadan Li1,
- Peng Zhou1,
- Ping Liang1,
- Qiwu Wang1 and
- Xiaowei Li1
© Zhao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 26 October 2012
- Accepted: 20 February 2013
- Published: 26 February 2013
Bladder transitional cell carcinoma greatly threatens human health all over the world. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shows a strong apoptosis-inducing effect on a variety of cancer cells including bladder cancer. However, adenovirus-mediated TRAIL expression still showed cytotoxicity to normal cells mainly due to lack of tumor specificity.
To solve the problem, we applied miRNA response elements (MREs) of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 to confer TRAIL expression with specificity to bladder cancer cells.
Expression of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 was greatly decreased in bladder cancer than normal bladder tissue. Luciferase assay showed that application of the 3 MREs was able to restrain exogenous gene expression to within bladder cancer cells. Subsequently, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus with TRAIL expression regulated by MREs of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218, namely Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218. qPCR, immunoblotting and ELISA assays demonstrated that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 expressed in bladder cancer cells, rather than normal bladder cells. The differential TRAIL expression also led to selective apoptosis-inducing and growth-inhibiting effect of Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 on bladder cancers. Finally, bladder cancer xenograft in mouse models further confirmed that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 effectively suppressed the growth of bladder cancers.
Collectively, we demonstrated that MREs-based TRAIL delivery into bladder cancer cells was feasible and efficient for cancer gene therapy.
- Bladder cancer
Among the most common malignant cancers, bladder transitional cell carcinoma severely risks health of the people on the earth . Downregulation of certain tumor suppressor genes was documented to largely contribute to initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer . Therefore, gene therapy is a reasonable strategy for bladder cancer treatment and many reports have confirmed its feasibility and effectiveness [3, 4].
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has attracted much attention due to its specific induction of apoptosis in various types of cancer cells by binding death receptors and activating mitochondria-independent signal transduction pathway [5, 6]. Like many other cancer types, adenovirus-mediated TRAIL therapy was well demonstrated to inhibit the survival of bladder cancer cells [7–12]. More intriguingly, extensive DR4 and DR5 expressions of bladder cancer in patients ensure its responsiveness to TRAIL in future clinical treatment .
Cytotoxicity to normal cells, however, seriously hurdles the clinical application of adenoviral vector for cancer gene therapy, since adenoviral vector lacks the ability to discriminate cancer and normal cells. To confer adenovirus with bladder cancer specificity, researchers developed many strategies including employing cancer-specific promoter. Although UP II promoter has been used to specifically drive TRAIL expression in bladder cancer cells, more novel strategies are needed to prevent the cytotoxicity of adenovirus-based gene therapy to normal cells [14–16].
Differential expression profile of miRNAs has been widely reported between bladder cancer and normal cells . Decreased expression level of certain miRNAs allows the introduced genes specifically expressed in bladder cancer cells by inserting their miRNA response elements (MREs) following the opening reading frames. So far, no groups have tested the feasibility and effectiveness of this MREs-based strategy for bladder cancer-specific gene therapy.
Here, we intended to identify suitable MREs for bladder cancer specific adenovirus-mediated TRAIL expression from the miRNAs with downregulated expression in bladder cancer, including miR-1 [18–21], miR-99a , miR-100 , miR-101 [24, 25], miR-125b [23, 26, 27], miR-133a [18, 20, 21, 23, 28–30], miR-143 [22, 23, 31–33], miR-145 [21, 23, 29–31, 34], miR-195-5p , miR-199a-3p , miR-200 [37, 38], miR-203 [39, 40], miR-205 , miR-218 [21, 41], miR-490-5p , miR-493 , miR-517a , miR-574-3p , miR-1826  and let-7c .
We employed primary cultures derived from bladder transitional carcinoma and normal bladder mucosal cells (BMC) in this study. For the culturing of bladder cancer, the samples were obtained with written informed consent from all patients according to protocols approved by Ethical Review Board in General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area Command of Chinese PLA (Chengdu, China). All patients underwent surgical resection of bladder carcinoma at Department of Urology, General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area Command of Chinese PLA (Chengdu, China). Bladder cancer samples were sheared into small pieces, followed by mechanical manipulation to obtain single cell suspension. The primary cultures were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 15% FBS.
For primary BMC culture, the samples were obtained from 8 patients that underwent cystoscopic examination of asymptomatic haematuria (The biopsies were not malignant revealed by histopathological results). The previously described procedures that have been approved by Ethical Review Board in General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area Command of Chinese PLA (Chengdu, China) was followed to establish the primary BMC culture . The BMCs were immortalized using adenoviral vector, Adeno-SV40 (Applied Biological Materials Inc., Canada), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All the patients approved the application of their samples for this study.
Construction of adenoviral vectors
Ad-EGFP and Ad-TRAIL were preserved in our laboratory. We constructed Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 as follows. A DNA fragment was synthesized (5′-ACAAACACCACATTCCA ACAAACACCACATTCC.
Cell line cultures
Human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line T24 and RT-4 were both purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and were grown in McCoy’s 5a Medium Modified (Life Technologies, Rockville, MD) supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (Life Technologies, Rockville, MD). Human endothelial cells HUV-EC-C and normal liver cells L-02 were obtained from Shanghai Cell Collection (Shanghai, China). HUV-EC-C and L-02 cells were cultured using DMEM media supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. All media was supplemented with 4 mM glutamine, 100 units/mL penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. All cells in this experiment were cultured under a 5% CO2 and humidified atmosphere at 37°C.
Quantitative PCR (qPCR)
Total RNA was extracted from 14 bladder cancer samples with Trizol solution (Sigma-Aldrich, MO) and pooled as one group for subsequent experiments. Another pool of RNA was also obtained from 8 normal bladder mucosal tissues according to the same protocol. Also, T24, RT-4, HUV-EC-C and L-02 cells were processed for extracting RNA with Trizol solution. Reverse transcription reaction was subsequently performed with TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. qPCR was finally performed with TaqMan® 2 × Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) on CFX96™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA) supplied with analytical software.
4 × 104 cells were cultured in each well of 6-well plates. TRAIL mRNA abundance was determined in Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-infected cells after treated with 10 MOI of adenoviruses. After 48h, cells were lysed for RNA extraction and then inversely transcribed into cDNAs with Rever Tra Ace qPCR RT Kit (Toyobo, Japan) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. qPCR was performed with SYBR premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa) on CFX96™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA) supplied with analytical software.
Protein in adenovirus-infected cells was quantified with immunoblotting assay. 3.5 × 105 cells were cultured in each well of 6-well plates. 10 MOI of adenoviruses were added to cell cultures. Proteins were lyzed with M-PER® Mammalian Protein Extraction Reagent (Thermo Scientific, IL) after 48 h, separated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred onto 0.45 μm nitrocellulose membranes. 5% fat-free dry milk was used for blocking. The membrane was then incubated with specific primary antibodies for 6h. The membrane was incubated with corresponding secondary antibody and then with SuperSignal West Dura Extended Duration Substrate (Thermo Scientific, IL).
TRAIL determination by ELISA assay
We performed ELISA assay to evaluate the secreted TRAIL protein in media. Briefly, 3.5 × 105 cells were cultured in each well of 6-well plates. 10 MOI of adenoviruses were added to cell media. After 48h, two-antibody sandwich ELISA was applied to determine human TRAIL expression level in the supernatant of cells. The involved antibodies are monoclonal mouse anti-human TRAIL antibody (R&D Systems), peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-goat IgG (H&L) and goat anti-human TRAIL antibody (R&D Systems). The absorbance was assessed at a 450 nm wavelength.
miRNA mimics treatment
miR-1, miR-133, miR-218 and control mimics were synthesized by GenePharma (Shanghai, China). T24 and RT-4 cells were transfected with 300 nM control mimic or the mixture of 100 nM miR-1, 100 nM miR-133 and 100 nM miR-218.
FACS analysis on apoptotic rates
3.5 × 105 cells were cultured in each well of 6-well plates. After 24h, the cells were infected with adenoviruses of 10 MOI. After 48h, the cells were stained with Annexin V-PE Apoptosis Detection Kit (Biovision, CA) based on the manufacturer’s instructions. The percentages of apoptotic cells were examined with FACS analysis.
MiRNA response elements (MREs) for bladder cancer-specific downregulated miRNAs
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCACATTCCA ACAAACACCACATTCCA ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTTGGAATGT GGTGTTTGTTGGAATGT GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCTACGGGT ACAAACACCTACGGGT ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTACCCGTA GGTGTTTGTACCCGTA GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCGTACTGT ACAAACACCGTACTGT ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTACAGTAC GGTGTTTGTACAGTAC GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCGGACCAAA ACAAACACCGGACCAAA ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTTTTGGTCC GGTGTTTGTTTTGGTCC GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCAAGCACAA ACAAACACCAAGCACAA ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTTTGTGCTT GGTGTTTGTTTGTGCTT GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCATCCATG ACAAACACCATCCATG ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTCATGGAT GGTGTTTGTCATGGAT GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCACCTTCA ACAAACACCACCTTCA ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTTGAAGGT GGTGTTTGTTGAAGGT GGTGTTTGTC-3′
Forward: 5′-TCGAGACAAACACCTGCACGA ACAAACACCTGCACGA ACAAACACCGC-3′
Reverse: 5′-GGCCGCGGTGTTTGTTCGTGCA GGTGTTTGTTCGTGCA GGTGTTTGTC-3′
4 × 104 cells were cultured in each well of 24-well plates. After transfecting T24, RT-4 and BMCs with the above plasmids, cells were processed with lysis buffer, and subsequently, luciferase activities were assessed with the Dual-Luciferase reporter system (Promega, WI) according to the manufacturers’ instructions.
Cell viability assay
1 × 104 T24 and RT-4 cells, 1.5 × 104 primary bladder cancer cells or 2 × 104 BMCs were cultured in each well of 96-well plates. Adenoviruses of indicated MOIs were added to cell cultures. After 6d, 50 μl of MTT (1 mg/ml) was added, and 4 h later, MTT-containing media was replaced with 150 μl of DMSO. The spectrophotometric absorbance was assessed on a model 550 microplate reader (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) at 570 nm with a reference wavelength of 655 nm. Cell viability = absorbance value of infected cells / absorbance value of uninfected control cells.
Procedures for animal experiments were all approved by the Committee on the Use and Care on Animals in Qingdao Municipal Hospital (Qingdao, China).
2×106 T24 cells were inoculated at the left flanks of 5-week-old female BALB/c nude mice (Institute of Animal Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China). When tumors reached 7–9 mm in diameter, 24 mice were equally assigned into 4 groups (n=6). 100 μL of PBS with or without 2×108 pfu of Ad-EGFP, Ad-TRAIL and Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 was directly administrated into tumors by injection, respectively. The administrations were performed every other day for five times with a total dosage of 1×109 pfu of adenoviruses.
T-24 cancer xenograft was established by incubating 1.5×106 cells at the right flanks of 5-week-old female BALB/c nude mice. 24 mice were equally divided into 4 groups (n=6). The doses of used adenoviruses and injection procedures were the same as those on T24 tumor xenograft.
We periodically measured tumor diameter using calipers. Tumor volume (mm3) = maximal length (mm) × perpendicular width (mm) 2 / 2.
Liver function evaluation
To evaluate the hepatoxicity induced by adenovirus treatment, BALB/c mice (n=5) were intravenously injected with 1×109 pfu of indicated adenoviruses every other day for five times. On day 11, their blood (600 mL/mice) was harvested by cardiac puncture, followed by being incubated with 12 U of heparin. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in blood were detected at the Clinical Laboratory, Qingdao Manucipal Hospital (Qingdao, China).
On day 7 after adenovirus injection, one mouse was sacrificed from each group and its tumor, brain and liver were collected and fixed according to the routine procedures. Histological staining was then performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor, brain and liver tissue sections using the streptavidinbiotin peroxidase complex method. Anti-TRAIL antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA) was used to specifically recognize TRAIL protein. The sections were finally counterstained with hematoxylin.
The statistical tests in this manuscript were two-tailed student’s t-test. Differences were considered as statistically significant (*) when P < 0.05 and statistically very significant (**) when P < 0.01.
The expression levels of 8 miRNAs were greatly reduced in bladder cancer cells
Application of MREs of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 restrained exogenous gene expression within bladder cancer cells
To assess if MREs of miR-1, miR-99a, miR-101, miR-133a, miR-218, miR-490-5p, miR-493 and miR-517a could be used for bladder cancer-specific delivery of exogenous genes, we constructed a series of reporter plasmids containing luciferase regulated by their MREs. The data revealed that luciferase expression was only slightly affected in bladder cancer cells transfected with the reporter plasmids that were regulated by MREs of miR-1, miR-101, miR-133a, miR-218 and miR-490-5p (Figure 2b). Furthermore, inhibitory effect on luciferase expression was greater than 80% in bladder mucosal cells (BMCs) when MREs of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-218 were used (P<0.01) (Figure 2b). Furthermore, HUV-EC-C and normal liver cells L-02 have been shown to have much higher expression level of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-218 than bladder cancer samples (Additional file 2: Figure S2).
Bladder cancer-specific expression of TRAIL genes was achieved by employing MREs of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218
To confirm if combined application of MREs of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 conferred TRAIL expression with bladder cancer specificity, we simultaneously inserted the 3 MREs immediately following TRAIL-encoding open reading frame on adenoviral vectors (Figure 1a). qPCR assay showed that the modified adenovirus, Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218, had a similar level of TRAIL gene to that of Ad-TRAIL in bladder cancer while TRAIL expression was greatly suppressed in Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-infected BMC (Figure 1b). Immunoblotting and ELISA assays also confirmed that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 infection resulted in TRAIL expression with a comparative level with Ad-TRAIL, but almost no TRAIL expression was detected in normal bladder mucosal cells infected with Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 (Figure 1c and d).
To confirm MRE-regulated TRAIL expression was dependant on the level of corresponding miRNAs, Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-infected T24 cells were treated with mixed mimics of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218. Elevated expression level of these miRNAs led to a great reduction in TRAIL expression in bladder cancer cells (Figure 1e).
The above results verified that simultaneous application of MREs of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-218 conferred adenovirus-mediated TRAIL expression with bladder cancer specificity.
MREs-regulated adenovirus-mediated TRAIL expression specifically activated extrinsic apoptotic pathway in bladder cancer cells
We subsequently examined the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway in T24, RT-4 and BMC cells by immunoblotting assay. The data showed that caspase-8 was cleaved in Ad-TRAIL and Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-infected bladder cancer cells as well as Ad-TRAIL-infected BMCs. However, this cleavage did not take place in Ad5-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-treated normal bladder mucosal cells (Figure 3b). Similarly, cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP proteins were also observed in the same patterns as caspase-8, suggesting extrinsic apoptotic pathway was selectively activated in bladder cancer cells when Ad5-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 was used (Figure 3b).
Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 decreased the survival of bladder cancer cells rather than normal bladder mucosal cells
We next investigated the viability of bladder cancer cells and BMCs with MTT assay, when Ad-EGFP, Ad-TRAIL and Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 were added to the indicated cell cultures. The data revealed that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 had a comparative tumor-suppressing capacity on T24 and RT-4 bladder cancer cells as well as primary bladder carcinoma cells with Ad-TRAIL (Figure 3c). However, Ad-TRAIL had cytotoxicity to both cancerous and normal bladder cells. In contrast, administration of Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 did not affect the survival of BMCs.
Collectively, we proved that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 inhibited the viability of bladder cancer cells without significant cytotoxicity to normal cells.
Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 suppressed the growth of bladder cancer xenograft in mouse models
To test the side effect induced by these adenoviruses, we injected Ad-EGFP, Ad-TRAIL and Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 into BALB/c mice. On day 11, their blood was collected and assayed for ALT level in serum. Ad-TRAIL treatment was found to cause an elevated level of serum ALT in mice. In contrast, Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 did not significantly change the ALT level in the blood of mice, showing no cytotoxicity to liver cells (Figure 4c).
Also, TRAIL expression was evaluated in the tumor and liver sections from the T24 tumor-bearing mice that received the injection of Ad-EGFP, Ad-TRAIL and Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218. The histological staining showed that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 treatment resulted in high expression of TRAIL in tumors as Ad-TRAIL infection (Figure 4d). Importantly, TRAIL expression was not detected in liver section from Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-treated group, whereas Ad-TRAIL-infected mice had an extensive TRAIL expression in their livers (Figure 4d).
In this study, we experimentally confirmed expression profiles of 20 miRNAs in bladder cancer and corresponding noncancerous bladder tissues. qPCR assay showed that all of them had lower abundance in bladder cancer in comparison with normal bladder tissue. Our results were in accordance with previous reports from other research groups. The differential expression level of these miRNAs made it feasible that their MREs can be utilized to control TRAIL expression specifically in bladder cancer cells.
Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-1, miR-99a, miR-101, miR-133a, miR-218, miR-490-5p, miR-493 and miR-517a only had limited suppressive effect on luciferase expression in bladder cancer cells when their MREs were applied. Further investigation indicated that MREs of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-218 inhibited luciferase expression in normal bladder cells. Therefore, MREs of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-218 were believed to prevent exogenous gene expression from normal bladder mucosal cells without affecting its expression in bladder cancer cells.
UPII promoter has been utilized for specific TRAIL expression in bladder cancer cells. However, gene expression controlled by this promoter is not strictly bladder cancer-specific, due to the remaining activity of UPII promoter in normal bladder mucosal cells . Therefore, other strategies should be developed for preventing TRAIL expression from normal bladder cells. We employed multidisciplinary approaches to prove that TRAIL expression was greatly inhibited in Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218-infected normal bladder epithelial cells. These data demonstrated this recombinant adenovirus as a vehicle for TRAIL expression with a high bladder cancer-specificity.
As expected, Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 induced extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis in bladder cancer cells, rather than normal bladder mucosal cells. Subsequent cell viability assay and animal experiments showed that Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218 greatly suppressed the growth of bladder cancer. More importantly, survival of normal bladder epithelial cells was almost not affected by Ad-TRAIL-MRE-1-133-218, suggesting biosafety of this MREs-regulated TRAIL-expressing adenoviral vector.
To further improve the biosafety of the adenoviral vector expressing TRAIL, other MREs should also be applied to suppress the undesirable exogenous gene expression in normal tissue, such as liver. miR-122 has been extensively reported to be highly expressed in normal hepatic cells and downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma, and thus, its MRE can be utilized to prevent cytotoxicity from liver cells .
TRAIL has been demonstrated as a potent anti-tumor cytokine in our study. Other therapeutic cytokines also act as candidates for cancer gene therapy, especially the natural inhibitors against signaling pathway that is critical for cancer progression. For example, DKK1 has been shown to suppress the gastric cancer progression by inhibiting WNT/β-catenin pathway . Our novel MRE-regulated adenoviral vector is believed to be a suitable expression vehicle for these inhibitors with high bladder cancer specificity.
We generated a bladder cancer-specific adenoviral vector that expressed TRAIL based on MREs of miRNAs whose levels were reduced in bladder cancer. The anti-tumor capacity and biosafety of this new adenoviral vector was proved by a series of experimental approaches. We proposed that the MREs-targeted adenovirus is a promising tool for gene therapy against bladder cancer.
- Jacobs BL, Lee CT, Montie JE: Bladder cancer in 2010: how far have we come?. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010, 60 (4): 244-272. 10.3322/caac.20077.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Voutsinas GE, Stravopodis DJ: Molecular targeting and gene delivery in bladder cancer therapy. J Buon. 2009, 14 (Suppl 1): S69-S78.Google Scholar
- Malmstrom PU, Loskog AS, Lindqvist CA, Mangsbo SM, Fransson M, Wanders A, Gardmark T, Totterman TH: AdCD40L immunogene therapy for bladder carcinoma–the first phase I/IIa trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2010, 16 (12): 3279-3287. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0385.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vardouli L, Lindqvist C, Vlahou K, Loskog AS, Eliopoulos AG: Adenovirus delivery of human CD40 ligand gene confers direct therapeutic effects on carcinomas. Cancer Gene Ther. 2009, 16 (11): 848-860. 10.1038/cgt.2009.31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walczak H, Miller RE, Ariail K, Gliniak B, Griffith TS, Kubin M, Chin W, Jones J, Woodward A, Le T, Smith C, Smolak P, Goodwin RG, Rauch CT, Schuh JC, Lynch DH: Tumoricidal activity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo. Nat Med. 1999, 5 (2): 157-163. 10.1038/5517.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Muzio M, Chinnaiyan AM, Kischkel FC, O’Rourke K, Shevchenko A, Ni J, Scaffidi C, Bretz JD, Zhang M, Gentz R, Mann M, Krammer PH, Peter ME, Dixit VM: FLICE, a novel FADD-homologous ICE/CED-3-like protease, is recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death–inducing signaling complex. Cell. 1996, 85 (6): 817-827. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81266-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao Y, Li Y, Wang Q, Wang L, Yang H, Li M: Increased antitumor capability of fiber-modified adenoviral vector armed with TRAIL against bladder cancers. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011, 353 (1–2): 93-99.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Metwalli AR, Khanbolooki S, Jinesh G, Sundi D, Shah JB, Shrader M, Choi W, Lashinger LM, Chunduru S, McConkey DJ, McKinlay M, Kamat AM: Smac mimetic reverses resistance to TRAIL and chemotherapy in human urothelial cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010, 10 (9): 885-892. 10.4161/cbt.10.9.13237.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- White-Gilbertson SJ, Kasman L, McKillop J, Tirodkar T, Lu P, Voelkel-Johnson C: Oxidative stress sensitizes bladder cancer cells to TRAIL mediated apoptosis by down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins. J Urol. 2009, 182 (3): 1178-1185. 10.1016/j.juro.2009.05.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sun B, Moibi JA, Mak A, Xiao Z, Roa W, Moore RB: Response of bladder carcinoma cells to TRAIL and antisense oligonucleotide, Bcl-2 or clusterin treatments. J Urol. 2009, 181 (3): 1361-1371. 10.1016/j.juro.2008.10.148.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Szliszka E, Mazur B, Zydowicz G, Czuba ZP, Krol W: TRAIL-induced apoptosis and expression of death receptor TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in bladder cancer cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009, 47 (4): 579-585.Google Scholar
- Shrader M, Pino MS, Lashinger L, Bar-Eli M, Adam L, Dinney CP, McConkey DJ: Gefitinib reverses TRAIL resistance in human bladder cancer cell lines via inhibition of AKT-mediated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression. Cancer Res. 2007, 67 (4): 1430-1435. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1224.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Y, Jin X, Li J, Jin X, Yu J, Sun X, Chu Y, Xu C, Li X, Wang X, Kakehi Y, Wu X: Expression of TRAIL, DR4, and DR5 in bladder cancer: correlation with response to adjuvant therapy and implications of prognosis. Urology. 2012, 79 (4): 968 e967-968 e915.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhai Z, Wang Z, Fu S, Lu J, Wang F, Li R, Zhang H, Li S, Hou Z, Wang H, Rodriguez R: Antitumor effects of bladder cancer-specific adenovirus carrying E1A-androgen receptor in bladder cancer. Gene Ther. 2012, 19 (11): 1065-1074. 10.1038/gt.2011.180.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang D, Wang Z, Tian J, He X, Chowdhury WH, Zhang X, Li S, Rodriguez R: Prostate stem cell antigen enhancer and uroplakin II promoter based bladder cancer targeted tissue-specific vector. Urol Oncol. 2010, 28 (2): 164-169. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2008.02.002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu H, Zhang ZA, Xu C, Huang G, Zeng X, Wei S, Zhang Z, Guo Y: Targeting gene expression of the mouse uroplakin II promoter to human bladder cells. Urol Res. 2003, 31 (1): 17-21.Google Scholar
- Catto JW, Alcaraz A, Bjartell AS, De Vere WR, Evans CP, Fussel S, Hamdy FC, Kallioniemi O, Mengual L, Schlomm T, Visakorpi T: MicroRNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer: a systematic review. Eur Urol. 2011, 59 (5): 671-681. 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.01.044.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamasaki T, Yoshino H, Enokida H, Hidaka H, Chiyomaru T, Nohata N, Kinoshita T, Fuse M, Seki N, Nakagawa M: Novel molecular targets regulated by tumor suppressors microRNA-1 and microRNA-133a in bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2012, 40 (6): 1821-1830.Google Scholar
- Yoshino H, Enokida H, Chiyomaru T, Tatarano S, Hidaka H, Yamasaki T, Gotannda T, Tachiwada T, Nohata N, Yamane T, Seki N, Nakagawa M: Tumor suppressive microRNA-1 mediated novel apoptosis pathways through direct inhibition of splicing factor serine/arginine-rich 9 (SRSF9/SRp30c) in bladder cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012, 417 (1): 588-593. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.12.011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshino H, Chiyomaru T, Enokida H, Kawakami K, Tatarano S, Nishiyama K, Nohata N, Seki N, Nakagawa M: The tumour-suppressive function of miR-1 and miR-133a targeting TAGLN2 in bladder cancer. Br J Cancer. 2011, 104 (5): 808-818. 10.1038/bjc.2011.23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chiyomaru T, Enokida H, Kawakami K, Tatarano S, Uchida Y, Kawahara K, Nishiyama K, Seki N, Nakagawa M: Functional role of LASP1 in cell viability and its regulation by microRNAs in bladder cancer. Urol Oncol. 30 (4): 434-443.Google Scholar
- Han Y, Chen J, Zhao X, Liang C, Wang Y, Sun L, Jiang Z, Zhang Z, Yang R, Chen J, Li Z, Tang A, Li X, Ye J, Guan Z, Gui Y, Cai Z: MicroRNA expression signatures of bladder cancer revealed by deep sequencing. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (3): e18286-10.1371/journal.pone.0018286.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song T, Xia W, Shao N, Zhang X, Wang C, Wu Y, Dong J, Cai W, Li H: Differential miRNA expression profiles in bladder urothelial carcinomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010, 11 (4): 905-911.Google Scholar
- Kottakis F, Polytarchou C, Foltopoulou P, Sanidas I, Kampranis SC, Tsichlis PN: FGF-2 regulates cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis through an NDY1/KDM2B-miR-101-EZH2 pathway. Mol Cell. 2011, 43 (2): 285-298. 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.06.020.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Friedman JM, Liang G, Liu CC, Wolff EM, Tsai YC, Ye W, Zhou X, Jones PA: The putative tumor suppressor microRNA-101 modulates the cancer epigenome by repressing the polycomb group protein EZH2. Cancer Res. 2009, 69 (6): 2623-2629. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3114.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baffa R, Fassan M, Volinia S, O’Hara B, Liu CG, Palazzo JP, Gardiman M, Rugge M, Gomella LG, Croce CM, Rosenberg A: MicroRNA expression profiling of human metastatic cancers identifies cancer gene targets. J Pathol. 2009, 219 (2): 214-221. 10.1002/path.2586.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang L, Luo J, Cai Q, Pan Q, Zeng H, Guo Z, Dong W, Huang J, Lin T: MicroRNA-125b suppresses the development of bladder cancer by targeting E2F3. Int J Cancer. 2011, 128 (8): 1758-1769. 10.1002/ijc.25509.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Uchida Y, Chiyomaru T, Enokida H, Kawakami K, Tatarano S, Kawahara K, Nishiyama K, Seki N, Nakagawa M: MiR-133a induces apoptosis through direct regulation of GSTP1 in bladder cancer cell lines. Urol Oncol. 2011, 31 (1): 115-123.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chiyomaru T, Enokida H, Tatarano S, Kawahara K, Uchida Y, Nishiyama K, Fujimura L, Kikkawa N, Seki N, Nakagawa M: miR-145 and miR-133a function as tumour suppressors and directly regulate FSCN1 expression in bladder cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010, 102 (5): 883-891. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605570.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ichimi T, Enokida H, Okuno Y, Kunimoto R, Chiyomaru T, Kawamoto K, Kawahara K, Toki K, Kawakami K, Nishiyama K, Tsujimoto G, Nakagawa M, Seki N: Identification of novel microRNA targets based on microRNA signatures in bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009, 125 (2): 345-352. 10.1002/ijc.24390.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Villadsen SB, Bramsen JB, Ostenfeld MS, Wiklund ED, Fristrup N, Gao S, Hansen TB, Jensen TI, Borre M, Orntoft TF, Dyrskjot L, Kjems J: The miR-143/-145 cluster regulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in bladder cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012, 106 (2): 366-374. 10.1038/bjc.2011.520.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song T, Zhang X, Wang C, Wu Y, Dong J, Gao J, Cai W, Hong B: Expression of miR-143 reduces growth and migration of human bladder carcinoma cells by targeting cyclooxygenase-2. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011, 12 (4): 929-933.Google Scholar
- Noguchi S, Mori T, Hoshino Y, Maruo K, Yamada N, Kitade Y, Naoe T, Akao Y: MicroRNA-143 functions as a tumor suppressor in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Cancer Lett. 2011, 307 (2): 211-220. 10.1016/j.canlet.2011.04.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ostenfeld MS, Bramsen JB, Lamy P, Villadsen SB, Fristrup N, Sorensen KD, Ulhoi B, Borre M, Kjems J, Dyrskjot L, Orntoft TF: miR-145 induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in urothelial cancer cell lines with targeting of an expression signature present in Ta bladder tumors. Oncogene. 2010, 29 (7): 1073-1084. 10.1038/onc.2009.395.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fei X, Qi M, Wu B, Song Y, Wang Y, Li T: MicroRNA-195-5p suppresses glucose uptake and proliferation of human bladder cancer T24 cells by regulating GLUT3 expression. FEBS Lett. 2012, 586 (4): 392-397. 10.1016/j.febslet.2012.01.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shatseva T, Lee DY, Deng Z, Yang BB: MicroRNA miR-199a-3p regulates cell proliferation and survival by targeting caveolin-2. J Cell Sci. 2011, 124 (Pt 16): 2826-2836.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wiklund ED, Bramsen JB, Hulf T, Dyrskjot L, Ramanathan R, Hansen TB, Villadsen SB, Gao S, Ostenfeld MS, Borre M, Peter ME, Orntoft TF, Kjems J, Clark SJ: Coordinated epigenetic repression of the miR-200 family and miR-205 in invasive bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 2011, 128 (6): 1327-1334. 10.1002/ijc.25461.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adam L, Zhong M, Choi W, Qi W, Nicoloso M, Arora A, Calin G, Wang H, Siefker-Radtke A, McConkey D, Bar-Eli M, Dinney C: miR-200 expression regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer cells and reverses resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2009, 15 (16): 5060-5072. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2245.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bo J, Yang G, Huo K, Jiang H, Zhang L, Liu D, Huang Y: microRNA-203 suppresses bladder cancer development by repressing bcl-w expression. Febs J. 2011, 278 (5): 786-792. 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07997.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gottardo F, Liu CG, Ferracin M, Calin GA, Fassan M, Bassi P, Sevignani C, Byrne D, Negrini M, Pagano F, Gomella LG, Croce CM, Baffa R: Micro-RNA profiling in kidney and bladder cancers. Urol Oncol. 2007, 25 (5): 387-392. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2007.01.019.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tatarano S, Chiyomaru T, Kawakami K, Enokida H, Yoshino H, Hidaka H, Yamasaki T, Kawahara K, Nishiyama K, Seki N, Nakagawa M: miR-218 on the genomic loss region of chromosome 4p15.31 functions as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2011, 39 (1): 13-21.Google Scholar
- Han Y, Chen J, Zhao X, Liang C, Wang Y, Sun L, Jiang Z, Zhang Z, Yang R, Chen J, Li Z, Tang A, Li X, Ye J, Guan Z, Gui Y, Cai Z: MicroRNA expression signatures of bladder cancer revealed by deep sequencing. PLoS One. 6 (3): e18286-Google Scholar
- Ueno K, Hirata H, Majid S, Yamamura S, Shahryari V, Tabatabai ZL, Hinoda Y, Dahiya R: Tumor suppressor microRNA-493 decreases cell motility and migration ability in human bladder cancer cells by downregulating RhoC and FZD4. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012, 11 (1): 244-253. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0592.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshitomi T, Kawakami K, Enokida H, Chiyomaru T, Kagara I, Tatarano S, Yoshino H, Arimura H, Nishiyama K, Seki N, Nakagawa M: Restoration of miR-517a expression induces cell apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines. Oncol Rep. 2011, 25 (6): 1661-1668.Google Scholar
- Tatarano S, Chiyomaru T, Kawakami K, Enokida H, Yoshino H, Hidaka H, Nohata N, Yamasaki T, Gotanda T, Tachiwada T, Seki N, Nakagawa M: Novel oncogenic function of mesoderm development candidate 1 and its regulation by MiR-574-3p in bladder cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2012, 40 (4): 951-959.Google Scholar
- Hirata H, Hinoda Y, Ueno K, Shahryari V, Tabatabai ZL, Dahiya R: MicroRNA-1826 targets VEGFC, beta-catenin (CTNNB1) and MEK1 (MAP2K1) in human bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2012, 33 (1): 41-48. 10.1093/carcin/bgr239.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Woodman JR, Mansfield KJ, Lazzaro VA, Lynch W, Burcher E, Moore KH: Immunocytochemical characterisation of cultures of human bladder mucosal cells. BMC Urol. 2011, 11: 5-10.1186/1471-2490-11-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He X, Liu J, Yang C, Su C, Zhou C, Zhang Q, Li L, Wu H, Liu X, Wu M, Qian Q: 5/35 fiber-modified conditionally replicative adenovirus armed with p53 shows increased tumor-suppressing capacity to breast cancer cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2011, 22 (3): 283-292. 10.1089/hum.2010.058.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin JH, Wu XR, Kreibich G, Sun TT: Precursor sequence, processing, and urothelium-specific expression of a major 15-kDa protein subunit of asymmetric unit membrane. J Biol Chem. 1994, 269 (3): 1775-1784.Google Scholar
- Ma L, Liu J, Shen J, Liu L, Wu J, Li W, Luo J, Chen Q, Qian C: Expression of miR-122 mediated by adenoviral vector induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010, 9 (7): 554-561. 10.4161/cbt.9.7.11267.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang B, Liu J, Ma LN, Xiao HL, Wang YZ, Li Y, Wang Z, Fan L, Lan C, Yang M, Hu L, Wei Y, Bian XW, Chen D, Wang J: Chimeric 5/35 adenovirus-mediated Dickkopf-1 overexpression suppressed tumorigenicity of CD44(+) gastric cancer cells via attenuating Wnt signaling. J Gastroenterol. 2012, Epub ahead of print,Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.